Category Archives: Breads

Fried Red Mullet with Pitta Bread

Serves 4.


  • 4 red mullet, gutted, scaled, and cleaned
  • 1 tbs all-purpose flour
  • 2 pitta breads
  • peanut oil, for frying
  • salt and pepper
  • 1 clove garlic
  • 2/3 cup smooth tahini
  • juice of 1 each lemon and orange

Pound garlic with salt until a paste.
Beat tahini with juices until smooth, then add garlic.  Season and set aside.

Rinse fish under cold running water and pat dry inside and out with paper towels.  Slash each fish with 3 diagonals and sprinkle with salt and pepper; toss in flour and cooking oil in a heavy pan for 3 minutes per side.  Drain on paper towels and keep warm.

Cut breads into strips and dry in same oil until golden.  Drain on paper towels and serve with fish and tahini sauce.

Ethiopian Flat Breads with Zahtar and Sumac

Ethiopian Flat Breads with Zahtar and Sumac Recipe from

Serves 5.


  • 2 1/4 tsp dried yeast
  • 1/2 tsp sugar
  • 1 1/4 cups lukewarm water
  • 4 cups bread flour
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 2 tbs olive oil
  • 1/4 cup zahtar
  • salt

Dissolve yeast with sugar in water and let sit for 10 minutes.

Sift flour with salt and make a well in the center.  Pour in yeast mixture and remaining water.  Draw flour from sides to make a dough.  Turn onto a floured surface and knead for 10 minutes.

Pour a drop of oil into the base of the bowl.  Roll dough in it and cover with a damp cloth and let sit for 2 hours.

Preheat oven to 400 F.

Mix oil and zahtar to make a paste.

Punch dough down and knead lightly.  Divide into 20 pieces.  Knead each piece into a ball and flatten it.  Smear with zahtar paste.  Place breads on a lightly greased baking tray and bake for 10 minutes then serve sprinkled with salt.

Garbanzo Beans with Toasted Bread and Yogurt

Serves 4.


  • 1 1/4 cups garbanzo beans, soaked overnight
  • 2 1/2 cups Greek yogurt
  • 2 cloves garlic, crushed
  • 4 pitta breads
  • 1 1/2 tsp dried mint
  • 1 tsp paprika
  • 1 tbs butter
  • 2 tbs pine nuts
  • salt and pepper

Drain beans and transfer to a pot.  Cover with water and bring to a boil.  Reduce heat and simmer for an hour.  Drain, reserving cooking liquid.

Toast breads and break up into bitesize pieces.  Arrange in a serving dish.

Spread beans over bread and moisten with a few tablespoons of reserved cooking liquid.

Beat yogurt with garlic and salt and pepper.  Add a generous spoonful over the beans and sprinkle with mint and paprika.

Quickly melt butter in a pan and fry nuts, stirring constantly, until golden.  Sprinkle over the yogurt and serve immediately.

Easy Chapatis (Flatbread)

2 1/2 cups whole wheat flour
1 teaspoon sea salt
1 cup water
cooking spray

In the bowl of a food processor fitted with a dough blade, process flour, salt and water until the mixture forms a ball.

Turn dough onto a floured work surface and knead for 5 minutes.

Transfer to a bowl and cover tightly with plastic wrap.

Let dough rest for 30 to 90 minutes.

Preheat oven to 200 degrees F (95 degrees C).

Divide dough into 8 equal pieces.

Roll each piece into a 7-inch (18-cm) circle.

Spray a cast-iron griddle or skillet once with cooking spray and set over medium-low heat.

Cook a chapati for 1 minute.

Turn over and cook 5 minutes on second side or until chapati bubbles up.

Flip back to first side and cook for 5 minutes.

Then place the cooked chapati over the open flame (or on the coils) of a separate burner for a few seconds to brown, as you would a tortilla.

Keep cooked chapatis warm in the oven while you cook the remaining dough.

If you prefer a crispy, cracker-like texture, increase oven temperature to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).

Bake cooked chapatis, on a pizza stone if possible, until crispy, about 10 minutes.

Authentic Injera (aka Ethiopian Flat Bread)

1 1/2 cups ground teff (180 g)
2 cups water
salt, to taste
vegetable oil, for the skillet

Mix ground teff with the water and let stand in a bowl covered with a dish towel at room temperature until it bubbles and has turned sour; This may take as long as 3 days, although I had success with an overnight fermentation; The fermenting mixture should be the consistency of a very thin pancake batter.

Stir in the salt, a little at a time, until you can barely detect its taste.

Lightly oil an 8 or 9 inch skillet (or a larger one if you like); Heat over medium heat.

Pour in enough batter to cover the bottom of the skillet; About 1/4 cup will make a thin pancake covering the surface of an 8 inch skillet if you spread the batter around immediately by turning and rotating the skillet in the air; This is the classic French method for very thin crepes; Injera is not supposed to be paper thin so you should use a bit more batter than you would for crepes, but less than you would for a flapjack pancakes.

Cook briefly, until holes form in the injera and the edges lift from the pan; Do not let it brown, and don’t flip it over as it is only supposed to be cooked on one side.

Remove and let cool. Place plastic wrap or foil between successive pieces so they don’t stick together.

Dabo Kolo

2 cups wheat flour
2 tablespoons berbere
1 tablespoon sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup water
4 tablespoons butter, softened (room temperature)

Preheat oven to 350°F

In a clean mixing bowl, combine and mix dry ingredients (flour, berberé, sugar, and salt).

Slowly add the water and mix so as to form a thick paste. Remove the mixture from the bowl and knead it on a lightly-floured surface for a few minutes to form a thick dough. Add the softened butter and knead for an additional five minutes. Let the dough rest in a cool place for ten minutes.

Divide the dough into handful-size pieces and roll these into long “pencils” not quite as thick as your small finger. Cut these rolls into pieces (scissors can be used), each piece no longer than the width of your finger.

Heat an ungreased skillet over a medium heat. Place enough of the uncooked dabo kolo in the skillet to loosely cover the bottom. (They may have to be cooked in batches.) Cook over medium heat, stirring periodically, until they are lightly browned on all sides, — OR — Arrange on a baking sheet. Bake in a hot oven for twenty to thirty minutes, stirring or shaking the pan a few times to prevent sticking.

When done, remove from oven and allow to cool completely. Store in dry air-tight containers.

**A more traditional way of making Dabo Kolo is to mix the flour and warm water to form dough then cook the dough on a skillet or griddle, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon until it forms itself into balls, then continuing to cook them until they are browned. While still hot they are seasoned with spices and butter, then after being allowed to cool they are stored.

**”Americanized” dabo kolo can be made by substituting ground cayenne pepper or red pepper for the berberé spice mix, though this would not suffice in Ethiopia. Vegetable oil can be used in place of the butter.

Injera (African [ Ethiopian] Flat Bread)

2 cups self-rising flour
2 cups seltzer water (club soda)

Mix the flour with the water; you want to have a somewhat liquid consistency.

Heat a large non-stick frying pan. The secret of making injera is that the pan be very hot.

Pour a thin layer (think crepe thinness) of mixture on the pan; cook until the bottom goldens and the top becomes sponge like.

You CAN turn it and cook the other side to crispness and brownness but traditionally the top side is supposed to be spongy — let the bottom cook but don’t turn it.

Ethiopian Flat Bread (Injera)

3 cups self-rising flour
1/2 cup whole wheat flour
1/2 cup cornmeal
1 tablespoon active dry yeast
3 1/2 cups warm water

Mix everything together to form a batter.

Let set in large bowl, covered, an hour or longer, until batter rises and becomes stretchy.

It can sit as long as 3-6 hours.

When ready, stir batter if liquid has settled on bottom.

Then whip in blender, 2 cups of batter at a time, thinning it with 1/2 – 3/4 cup water.

Batter will be quite thin.

Cook in non-stick frypan WITHOUT OIL (is that a great instruction or what?) over medium or medium-high heat.

Use 1/2 cup batter per injera for a 12-inch pan or 1/3 cup batter for a 10-inch pan.

Pour batter in heated pan and quickly swirl pan to spread batter as thin as possible.

Batter should be no thicker than 1/8-inch.

Do not turn over.

Injera does not easily stick or burn.

It is cooked through when bubbles appear all over the top.

Lay each injera on a clean towel for a minute or two, then stack in covered dish to keep warm.

Finished injera will be thicker than a crepe, but thinner than a pancake.

Injera (Ethiopian Sourdough Flatbread)

2 cup TEFF flour
2 cup self-rising flour rice or barley flour
1/2 tsp baking powder
5 cup warm water

In a large bowl mix 2 1/2 cups water with 2 cups TEFF flour.

In a blender mix self-rising or other flour, 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and 2 1/2 cups water, then pour mixture into a second bowl.

Cover both bowls and leave them for 2-3 days until fermentation and water has risen to the top of each mixture.

Carefully pour off the water that now covers the mixtures.

Combine the two mixtures in one bowl, cover and let the mixture stand for 2 hours until it rises.

Pour the batter evenly to form a thin layer over the surface of a large heated skillet. The skillet temperature should be 425F.

Cook mixture until a spongy, crepe-like bread is formed. Remove from heat and allow to cool.

Place food on injera and arrange folded injera around edges of serving dish.Injera around edge of dish are used to pick up morsels of food.